Closed Loop Neural-Symbolic Learning via Integrating Neural Perception, Grammar Parsing, and Symbolic Reasoning

Qing Li, Siyuan Huang, Yining Hong, Yixin Chen, Ying Nian Wu, Song-Chun Zhu
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:5884-5894, 2020.

Abstract

The goal of neural-symbolic computation is to integrate the connectionist and symbolist paradigms. Prior methods learn the neural-symbolic models using reinforcement learning (RL) approaches, which ignore the error propagation in the symbolic reasoning module and thus converge slowly with sparse rewards. In this paper, we address these issues and close the loop of neural-symbolic learning by (1) introducing the grammar model as a symbolic prior to bridge neural perception and symbolic reasoning, and (2) proposing a novel back-search algorithm which mimics the top-down human-like learning procedure to propagate the error through the symbolic reasoning module efficiently. We further interpret the proposed learning framework as maximum likelihood estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the back-search algorithm as a Metropolis-Hastings sampler. The experiments are conducted on two weakly-supervised neural-symbolic tasks: (1) handwritten formula recognition on the newly introduced HWF dataset; (2) visual question answering on the CLEVR dataset. The results show that our approach significantly outperforms the RL methods in terms of performance, converging speed, and data efficiency. Our code and data are released at https://liqing-ustc.github.io/NGS.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-li20f, title = {Closed Loop Neural-Symbolic Learning via Integrating Neural Perception, Grammar Parsing, and Symbolic Reasoning}, author = {Li, Qing and Huang, Siyuan and Hong, Yining and Chen, Yixin and Wu, Ying Nian and Zhu, Song-Chun}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {5884--5894}, year = {2020}, editor = {III, Hal Daumé and Singh, Aarti}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20f/li20f.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20f.html}, abstract = {The goal of neural-symbolic computation is to integrate the connectionist and symbolist paradigms. Prior methods learn the neural-symbolic models using reinforcement learning (RL) approaches, which ignore the error propagation in the symbolic reasoning module and thus converge slowly with sparse rewards. In this paper, we address these issues and close the loop of neural-symbolic learning by (1) introducing the grammar model as a symbolic prior to bridge neural perception and symbolic reasoning, and (2) proposing a novel back-search algorithm which mimics the top-down human-like learning procedure to propagate the error through the symbolic reasoning module efficiently. We further interpret the proposed learning framework as maximum likelihood estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the back-search algorithm as a Metropolis-Hastings sampler. The experiments are conducted on two weakly-supervised neural-symbolic tasks: (1) handwritten formula recognition on the newly introduced HWF dataset; (2) visual question answering on the CLEVR dataset. The results show that our approach significantly outperforms the RL methods in terms of performance, converging speed, and data efficiency. Our code and data are released at https://liqing-ustc.github.io/NGS.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Closed Loop Neural-Symbolic Learning via Integrating Neural Perception, Grammar Parsing, and Symbolic Reasoning %A Qing Li %A Siyuan Huang %A Yining Hong %A Yixin Chen %A Ying Nian Wu %A Song-Chun Zhu %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-li20f %I PMLR %P 5884--5894 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20f.html %V 119 %X The goal of neural-symbolic computation is to integrate the connectionist and symbolist paradigms. Prior methods learn the neural-symbolic models using reinforcement learning (RL) approaches, which ignore the error propagation in the symbolic reasoning module and thus converge slowly with sparse rewards. In this paper, we address these issues and close the loop of neural-symbolic learning by (1) introducing the grammar model as a symbolic prior to bridge neural perception and symbolic reasoning, and (2) proposing a novel back-search algorithm which mimics the top-down human-like learning procedure to propagate the error through the symbolic reasoning module efficiently. We further interpret the proposed learning framework as maximum likelihood estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the back-search algorithm as a Metropolis-Hastings sampler. The experiments are conducted on two weakly-supervised neural-symbolic tasks: (1) handwritten formula recognition on the newly introduced HWF dataset; (2) visual question answering on the CLEVR dataset. The results show that our approach significantly outperforms the RL methods in terms of performance, converging speed, and data efficiency. Our code and data are released at https://liqing-ustc.github.io/NGS.
APA
Li, Q., Huang, S., Hong, Y., Chen, Y., Wu, Y.N. & Zhu, S.. (2020). Closed Loop Neural-Symbolic Learning via Integrating Neural Perception, Grammar Parsing, and Symbolic Reasoning. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:5884-5894 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/li20f.html.

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